Brexit timeline

On June 23rd 2016, Britain voted to leave the EU. The timeline below tells the story of the events since that fateful day, collating all of the Centre for European Reform’s work on Brexit. The CER’s contacts in Brussels, London, Paris, Berlin and other capitals – and its expertise on economic, migration and security policy – continue to make it the key source of Brexit analysis for voters, policy-makers, journalists and businesses.

Oldest to newest
Newest to oldest
Referendum
23 June 2016
The Remain camp has been weak

The Remain camp has been weak

As Britons go to the polling booths to decide about their country's EU membership, the outcome of the referendum is impossible to predict. But whatever the result, what prime minister David Cameron has called "a frenetic campaign" has failed to produce a compelling argument for Europe, EU expert Charles Grant told EUobserver.
Эксперт о референдуме: Если Британия проголосует за выход из ЕС, союз потеряет внутреннее и внешнее доверие

Эксперт о референдуме: Если Британия проголосует за выход из ЕС, союз потеряет внутреннее и внешнее доверие

Эксперт о референдуме: Если Британия проголосует за выход из ЕС, союз потеряет внутреннее и внешнее доверие
Brexit by byl pro Visegrád rána. Kdo by pak brzdil dominanci Paříže a Berlína?

Brexit by byl pro Visegrád rána. Kdo by pak brzdil dominanci Paříže a Berlína?

Odchod Británie z EU by pro země střední Evropy znamenal ztrátu důležitého partnera a spojence. Londýn byl vždy vnímán jako protiváha francouzsko-německého tandemu, jenž prosazuje hlubší integraci.
Cameron announces resignation
24 June 2016
How Brexit should be done

How Brexit should be done

In the early hours of this morning - when we discovered "Leave" had won 52 per cent of the votes in this referendum - the rules of British politics were torn to shreds.
The impact of Brexit on the EU

The impact of Brexit on the EU

The EU will not dissolve after Brexit, but it will change incrementally. The UK will probably end up with a free trade agreement like Canada’s.
Britain's Out. Now what?

Britain's Out. Now what?

Before dawn broke on the Continent, the outcome was shocking, if not wholly surprising. The majority of British voters chose to leave the EU. So what happens now to the UK, the EU and the world beyond.
Welche Lehren der Rest der EU aus dem Brexit ziehen sollte

Welche Lehren der Rest der EU aus dem Brexit ziehen sollte

One positive element of the British EU referendum debate is the lively discussion about the economics of EU membership. And the verdict is relatively clear: the single market has benefitted its members.
Viewpoint: Brexit throws uncertain EU off balance

Viewpoint: Brexit throws uncertain EU off balance

A while ago France's National Front (FN) leader Marine Le Pen said that if the UK voted to leave the EU, it would be like the Berlin Wall falling in 1989.
25 June 2016
How Leave outgunned Remain: The battle of the 'five Ms'

How Leave outgunned Remain: The battle of the 'five Ms'

Remain suffered from unconvincing messengers, too narrow a message, difficulties over migration, a savage media and a ruthless Leave campaign machine.
Falló Cameron, pero Bruselas ignoró el asunto

Falló Cameron, pero Bruselas ignoró el asunto

A eso de las tres o las cuatro de la madrugada empezaron a remitir las esperanzas de Camino Mortera, jurista ovetense, investigadora del Centro para la Reforma Europea, un "think tank" sobre asuntos europeos con base en Londres.
26 June 2016
Europejskie domino

Europejskie domino

Brexit to przede wszystkim sygnał dla instytucji unijnych: trzeba się skupić na odbudowaniu zaufania obywateli do projektu europejskiego, a nie na pomysłach dalszej integracji - mówi Agata Gostyńska-Jakubowska, ekspertka Centre for European Reform w Londynie.
Na nią nie ma apetytu w poszczególnych stolicach. Nie zapominajmy jednak, że za Brexit odpowiedzialne są przede wszystkim elity polityczne i eurosceptyczne media, które od lat prowadziły nagonkę na Unię
...
28 June 2016
How Brexit burst the Brussels bubble

How Brexit burst the Brussels bubble

The EU needs to start listening to its citizens, eurosceptic though they may be, if it wants to save what is left of the European project.
29 June 2016
Dear EU leaders, please handle Britain with care

Dear EU leaders, please handle Britain with care

Britain is in serious trouble. It does not need further concessions from you, but the dust needs to settle before it can take decisions about its future.
Simon Tilford
Judy Asks: Is Brexit reversible?

Judy Asks: Is Brexit reversible?

A selection of experts answer a new question from Judy Dempsey on the foreign and security policy challenges shaping Europe’s role in the world.
Simon Tilford
4 July 2016
Por qué Reino Unido perdió la batalla

Por qué Reino Unido perdió la batalla

La hostilidad hacia las élites se ha convertido en una fuerza poderosa, no solo en Europa sino también en EE UU. Para la Unión Europea es un problema porque, según el autor, siempre será vista como una institución ligada a la clase dirigente.
The Great British trade-off: Why the path to Brexit might be painful

The Great British trade-off: Why the path to Brexit might be painful

Before the UK can enter this glorious new era of bilateral trade deals, the new Prime Minister must negotiate the divorce terms with the EU. He or she must also avoid damaging Britain’s existing trade relations with Europe. Welcome to the Great British trade-off.
Rem Korteweg
5 July 2016
Briten zum Brexit: Liebe EU-Partner, bitte behandelt Großbritannien mit Nachsicht

Briten zum Brexit: Liebe EU-Partner, bitte behandelt Großbritannien mit Nachsicht

Großbritannien steckt in ernsthaften Schwierigkeiten. Es braucht keine weiteren Zugeständnisse, aber es muss sich erst wieder sammeln, bevor es über seine Zukunft entscheiden kann.
Simon Tilford
6 July 2016
Duelo de damas para el numero 10

Duelo de damas para el numero 10

Nadie le pidió a David Cameron que celebrara un referéndum sobre la permanencia de Reino Unido en la Unión Europea.
11 July 2016
Long day’s journey into economic night

Long day’s journey into economic night

Economic developments in Britain since the referendum suggest that a recession is coming. And the politics of the negotiation with the EU suggest the country will suffer a prolonged period of weak economic growth.
The first item in Theresa May's in-tray: A Brexit-induced recession

The first item in Theresa May's in-tray: A Brexit-induced recession

Theresa May will be the next UK Prime Minister, and sterling and the FTSE 250 rose almost immediately.
Theresa May becomes new PM
15 July 2016
How Brexit is changing the EU

How Brexit is changing the EU

By boosting Europe's populists, Brexit is making EU governments increasingly hostile to the 'federalism' of the Brussels institutions. It is also making Germany even more preponderant.
CER podcast: Discussion on Theresa May's new cabinet

CER podcast: Discussion on Theresa May's new cabinet

A conversation about the strategy behind recent appointments, consequences for Britain’s foreign policy and trade relations, and an outlook on the start of negotiations with the EU-27. 
Sophia Besch, Simon Tilford, Ian Bond, Rem Korteweg, Agata Gostyńska-Jakubowska
18 July 2016
Britain's limited options

Britain's limited options

Britain is one of the more populous countries in Europe, is highly integrated with the European economy, and is 21 miles from France. These facts limit its room for manoeuvre in the Brexit negotiations.
Brexit and foreign policy: Divorce?

Brexit and foreign policy: Divorce?

The British government must work hard to minimise the damage to its international influence from Brexit. First step: more investment in relations with European partners.
26 July 2016
Parliaments after Brexit: Building or stumbling blocks?

Parliaments after Brexit: Building or stumbling blocks?

There is growing eurosceptic sentiment in EU capitals and the Commission worries that parliaments will complicate European integration. But they can be assets to the EU if they are better engaged in European business.
28 July 2016
Theresa May and her six-pack of difficult deals

Theresa May and her six-pack of difficult deals

Theresa May’s ministers need to negotiate not just one Brexit deal, but six. They must charm not only EU governments, but also every WTO member.
Six Brexit deals that Theresa May must strike

Six Brexit deals that Theresa May must strike

Britain’s exit from the EU will be far more complicated than most British politicians realise.
29 July 2016
Overcoming the poisonous politics of protectionism

Overcoming the poisonous politics of protectionism

Hillary Clinton faces an election that has come to revolve around the legitimacy of a political establishment that she epitomises. And no issue has fueled that challenge more powerfully than international trade.
Simon Tilford
CER Podcast: 5 questions on Theresa May’s visit to Warsaw

CER Podcast: 5 questions on Theresa May’s visit to Warsaw

Sophia Besch talks to Agata Gostyńska-Jakubowska about Polish priorities during the Brexit negotiations and consequences of the British vote to leave the EU for the bilateral relationship between the UK and Poland.
1 August 2016
CER podcast: 5 questions on Theresa May's Brexit negotiations

CER podcast: 5 questions on Theresa May's Brexit negotiations

Sophia Besch talks to Charles Grant about the six deals that the British government will have to strike – with the EU, the WTO and bilaterally – in order to realise the Brexit vote.
5 August 2016
Britain will struggle to make EU migrants ‘go home’

Britain will struggle to make EU migrants ‘go home’

The British government is likely to let all EU migrants who arrive before the date of Brexit stay in the country. Other options may be politically attractive, but are impractical, of dubious legality, or against British interests.
8 August 2016
Il n'y aura pas de nouveau traité européen majeur

Il n'y aura pas de nouveau traité européen majeur

Le Brexit est un événement capital dans l’histoire de l’Europe, et après lui le récit dominant sera non plus celui de l’intégration mais celui de la désintégration.
18 August 2016
EU referendum: The beginning, not the end, of Brexiteers' problems

EU referendum: The beginning, not the end, of Brexiteers' problems

On 23 June 2016, Britain voted to leave the European Union. The referendum outcome triggered resignation of Prime Minister David Cameron and his replacement by former Home Secretary Theresa May.
5 September 2016
Always look on the dark side of life: How Britain got the EU wrong

Always look on the dark side of life: How Britain got the EU wrong

When the British people voted by 52 to 48 per cent on June 23rd to leave the European Union, the political and financial establishment was shocked. Why had so many ordinary Britons voted for a leap into the unknown?
6 September 2016
Don’t give up on TTIP

Don’t give up on TTIP

TTIP, the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, is in trouble. A chilly protectionist breeze is blowing across the west and the likelihood of reaching and ratifying a deal is receding.
Rem Korteweg
David Davis doesn't understand

David Davis doesn't understand

His remarks in the Commons betray his failure to grasp the nature of the Single Market and his failure to acknowledge the Single Market’s role in boosting trade in goods and services among its member-states.
Simon Tilford
8 September 2016
CER podcast: Charles Grant and Nick Clegg on Brexit challenges

CER podcast: Charles Grant and Nick Clegg on Brexit challenges

Charles Grant talks to Nick Clegg MP about the challenges facing the EU-UK exit negotiations, after the launch of his second 'Brexit Challenge' report.
Charles Grant, Nick Clegg MP
16 September 2016
Minus Britain, the EU brainstorms in Bratislava

Minus Britain, the EU brainstorms in Bratislava

As Brussels and European Union capitals get back into their political rhythm again after the summer break, the EU meeting in Bratislava on Friday 16 September is set to be anything but business as usual.
Juncker-Tusk: A clash of EU visions

Juncker-Tusk: A clash of EU visions

On Wednesday (14 September), the president of the European Commission, Jean-Claude Juncker, delivered his annual state of the Union speech at the European parliament’s plenary session in Strasbourg.
CER podcast: Simon Tilford and Alexander Stubb on Brexit and the future of Britain and the EU

CER podcast: Simon Tilford and Alexander Stubb on Brexit and the future of Britain and the EU

Simon Tilford speaks to former Prime Minister of Finland Alexander Stubb about the implications of Brexit and the challenges ahead for the EU.
Simon Tilford, Alexander Stubb
19 September 2016
Why a hard Brexit looks likely

Why a hard Brexit looks likely

Recent data suggests that the Brexit vote will not cause a recession. This, coupled with the fact that British voters rejected two important principles of the EU, makes a single market exit all but certain.
Brexit will make Britain's mediocre economic record worse

Brexit will make Britain's mediocre economic record worse

Britain is already an average economic performer by Western European standards. Brexit will further sap its economic dynamism and aggravate startling regional disparities
Simon Tilford
Een berg Brexit-onderhandelingen: Keep calm and carry on?

Een berg Brexit-onderhandelingen: Keep calm and carry on?

Na de uitslag begint het harde werk. Hoe vorm te geven aan Brexit?
Rem Korteweg
20 September 2016
Brexit: What have we learned so far?

Brexit: What have we learned so far?

On 23 June 2016, the British electorate defied the expectations of political leaders, financial markets and foreign allies by voting to withdraw from the European Union.
Sophia Besch, James Black
CER podcast: Last week in EU affairs

CER podcast: Last week in EU affairs

Sophia Besch talks to Ian Bond and Agata Gostyńska-Jakubowska about the Bratislava summit, President Jean-Claude Juncker's State of the European Union address and defence union proposals.
22 September 2016
Written evidence from The Centre for European Reform

Written evidence from The Centre for European Reform

Referendums on constitutional questions are too important to be settled by a simple majority of those who vote on the day.
26 September 2016
Britain, don't blame the EU for your economic problems, CER says

Britain, don't blame the EU for your economic problems, CER says

The UK's difficulties in unlocking its economic potential lie at home and it's wrong to blame the European Union, according to a new report by the Centre for European Reform.
Simon Tilford
Britain's Brexit economy is "mediocre" compared to other EU countries

Britain's Brexit economy is "mediocre" compared to other EU countries

“Brexit Britain: The Poor Man of Western Europe?”, the latest report of the Centre for European Reform authored by Simon Tilford criticizes Britain’s economy and decision for Brexit.  It brings forth evidence that Britain is not the strong economic leader that the public perceives it as being.
Simon Tilford
27 September 2016
CER report: The EU never held Britain's economy back

CER report: The EU never held Britain's economy back

Britain's economy is sluggish and unproductive, and will worsen with Brexit, according to a report from the Centre for European Reform (CER).
Simon Tilford
3 October 2016
Why the 27 are taking a hard line on Brexit

Why the 27 are taking a hard line on Brexit

The British government needs to understand why the 27 are taking a hard line on Brexit, and then work hard to secure their goodwill.
Theresa May's game of Brexit chicken

Theresa May's game of Brexit chicken

Theresa May's speech to the Conservative party conference yesterday was only slightly less gnomic than her previous statements about Brexit.
CER podcast: Charles Grant on negotiating Brexit – priorities on both sides of the channel

CER podcast: Charles Grant on negotiating Brexit – priorities on both sides of the channel

Sophia Besch talks to CER's director Charles Grant about Brexit red lines in Paris, Berlin and Brussels and a negotiation strategy for the British.
4 October 2016
Storbritannien på vej mod 'hård Brexit'

Storbritannien på vej mod 'hård Brexit'

Den britiske økonomi har i månederne efter EU-afstemningen klaret sig bedre, end hvad mange eksperter advarede om under valgkampen.
Simon Tilford
7 October 2016
Why Europe wants a hard Brexit to hurt

Why Europe wants a hard Brexit to hurt

British ministers are being overly optimistic about the chances of a decent trade deal if they reject the single market.
CER podcast: The rights of EU migrants in Britain after Brexit

CER podcast: The rights of EU migrants in Britain after Brexit

CER researchers assess the credibility, legality and practical feasibility of political proposals to restrict the rights of EU migrants in the UK.
21 October 2016
Sterling slump won't rescue the British economy

Sterling slump won't rescue the British economy

The 2008 devaluation did not prompt strong growth in British exports. The post-referendum fall in the pound is unlikely to do so either.
John Springford, Simon Tilford
25 October 2016
Not so special: Why the US won't help Britain in the Brexit talks

Not so special: Why the US won't help Britain in the Brexit talks

The US is watching two of its best friends get a divorce. It is not in its interest to take sides.
26 October 2016
What would an "interim" Brexit deal look like?

What would an "interim" Brexit deal look like?

We will leave the EU without a long-term trade deal in place writes Simon Tilford.
Simon Tilford
CER podcast: Charles Grant and Jean Pisani-Ferry on UK-EU relations and the future of the Eurozone

CER podcast: Charles Grant and Jean Pisani-Ferry on UK-EU relations and the future of the Eurozone

Charles Grant and Jean Pisani-Ferry discuss the chances of a ‘continental partnership’ between Britain and the EU post Brexit.
Charles Grant, Sophia Besch, Jean Pisani-Ferry
28 October 2016
La caduta della sterlina non salverà l’economia britannica

La caduta della sterlina non salverà l’economia britannica

Per capire se una sterlina più debole potrà dare una spinta alle esportazioni britanniche, dobbiamo andare a vedere l’impatto che hanno avuto i precedenti deprezzamenti sulla domanda estera di beni e servizi del Regno Unito, e anche sulla struttura dell’export britannico.
John Springford, Simon Tilford
15 November 2016
Brexit: The view from Central Europe

Brexit: The view from Central Europe

The UK’s decision to withdraw from the EU is a blow to Central Europe. The Central European countries will urge other member-states to maintain close ties with post-Brexit Britain.
16 November 2016
CER podcast series: The economics of populism, episode one

CER podcast series: The economics of populism, episode one

In this episode, Barry Eichengreen and Martin Wolf discuss 'Are macro-economic policy failures behind the rise of populism?'
Christian Odendahl, Barry Eichengreen, Martin Wolf
21 November 2016
Brussels prepares for a hard Brexit

Brussels prepares for a hard Brexit

The EU institutions predict a painful divorce for the UK, because they see hard-line eurosceptics pushing Theresa May away from a soft Brexit.
22 November 2016
A wake-up call for liberal Brexiters

A wake-up call for liberal Brexiters

Trump's win has further weakened the liberal case for Brexit. Forging the closest EU ties possible is now even more essential for Britain.
Simon Tilford
Plugging Britain into EU security is not that simple

Plugging Britain into EU security is not that simple

Plugging the British into EU police and judicial co-operation will not be easy. And the UK will probably end up with less generous deals than the ones it has now.
23 November 2016
It's impossible for the government not to screw up Brexit with only 24 months to seal the deal

It's impossible for the government not to screw up Brexit with only 24 months to seal the deal

From figuring out the negotiations guidelines to drawing up a transition deal, parliament's vote, European Court of Justice reviews and even talks about who gets what wine from the Commission's cellar, drawing up a Brexit deal will take years not months.
Rem Korteweg
25 November 2016
Italian constitutional referendum: Much ado about nothing?

Italian constitutional referendum: Much ado about nothing?

After the victory of "Leave" in the EU referendum and Donald Trump’s election as US President, Italy seems to be lined up as the next domino to fall to populism, with a referendum on constitutional changes scheduled for 4th December.
5 December 2016
De kans dat de brexit niet doorgaat is nul

De kans dat de brexit niet doorgaat is nul

Wie het Britse brexitgetreuzel volgt, kan zomaar het gevoel bekruipen dat de eilandbewoners misschien wel nooit uit de Europese Unie zullen vertrekken.
Are we heading for a hard Brexit?

Are we heading for a hard Brexit?

While it’s nice to know what the options are, the main thing is trying to find out what will actually happen.
8 December 2016
Britain is heading for the hardest of hard Brexits, but Theresa May can limit the damage

Britain is heading for the hardest of hard Brexits, but Theresa May can limit the damage

Theresa May's government is heading for the hardest of hard Brexits. That's what many European officials now believe.
12 December 2016
Brexit and the economics of populism

Brexit and the economics of populism

Inequality, insecurity and a nativist backlash against immigration all help to explain the rise of populism. But globalisation does not prevent governments from addressing these problems.
Simon Tilford, John Springford
14 December 2016
EU defence, Brexit and Trump: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

EU defence, Brexit and Trump: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

Brexit and Trump compel European leaders to get serious about EU defence. But a lack of leadership and investment will make sustaining their efforts difficult.
15 December 2016
CER podcast series: The economics of populism, episode five

CER podcast series: The economics of populism, episode five

In this episode, Martin Sandbu and Christian Dustmann discuss 'How should governments respond to migration fears?'
Sophia Besch, Martin Sandbu, Christian Dustmann
16 December 2016
Customs union membership is no way out of the Brexit trap

Customs union membership is no way out of the Brexit trap

Remaining in the customs union seems to be the least damaging way for Britain to ‘take back control’, but it is fraught with difficulties.
19 December 2016
Nicola Sturgeon Brexit adviser pours cold water on her single market plans hours before they are unveiled

Nicola Sturgeon Brexit adviser pours cold water on her single market plans hours before they are unveiled

Charles Grant said it was “extremely difficult” to see how her plans were legally, politically or technically feasible.
21 December 2016
CER podcast: CER researchers review the year 2016

CER podcast: CER researchers review the year 2016

Charles Grant, Simon Tilford and Ian Bond review the political themes and events that shaped 2016.
9 January 2017
Brexit-folk er ikke globaliseringstabere

Brexit-folk er ikke globaliseringstabere

Siden et flertal af briterne i juni sidste år stemte for at forlade EU, har politikere og analytikere kaldt det et oprør fra vælgere, der er blevet ramt af globaliseringens ulemper og stigende ulighed.
Simon Tilford
May sets out plan for Brexit at Lancaster House
17 January 2017
What does Theresa May's speech tell us about how Britain will leave the EU?

What does Theresa May's speech tell us about how Britain will leave the EU?

Theresa May has decided on a hard Brexit, putting sovereignty ahead of economics. She thinks the negotiations will take only two years, but they will take longer.
18 January 2017
Was Theresa May nicht gesagt hat - aber ansprechen muss

Was Theresa May nicht gesagt hat - aber ansprechen muss

Die britische Premierministerin Theresa May hat in ihrer Lancaster House Rede die zwölf Ziele der Briten in den kommenden Brexit Verhandlungen vorgestellt.
19 January 2017
What free movement means to Europe and why it matters to Britain

What free movement means to Europe and why it matters to Britain

Britain and the EU-27 view migration very differently. That could complicate the Brexit and free trade negotiations.
25 January 2017
What does the Supreme Court's ruling mean for British parliamentary sovereignty?

What does the Supreme Court's ruling mean for British parliamentary sovereignty?

The Supreme Court ruled that Theresa May needs to ask Parliament for its consent to notify of the UK's intention to leave the EU.
26 January 2017
May is weak in Europe but strong at home

May is weak in Europe but strong at home

The EU-27 fear domestic politics will drive Britain towards a very hard Br‎exit. But Theresa May is strong enough at home to resist such pressures, if she wishes to.
Britain's economy: Enjoy the calm before the storm

Britain's economy: Enjoy the calm before the storm

Britain's economy has not weathered the Brexit storm. But the calm before the storm has lasted longer than many economists expected.
Simon Tilford
How will the election of the new European Parliament President affect Brexit talks?

How will the election of the new European Parliament President affect Brexit talks?

Last week the European Parliament elected Antonio Tajani as its new president. The central question for the UK is what effect Tajani will have on the Brexit talks.
27 January 2017
CER podcast: Rob Wainwright and Camino Mortera-Martinez on Europol and UK-EU security co-operation

CER podcast: Rob Wainwright and Camino Mortera-Martinez on Europol and UK-EU security co-operation

Camino Mortera-Martinez talks to Rob Wainwright about the work of Europol on counter-terrorism and migration, the future of his agency and the effects of Brexit on UK-EU security co-operation.
Camino Mortera-Martinez, Rob Wainwright
1 February 2017
Parliamentarians in Brexit talks: Bulls in a china shop?

Parliamentarians in Brexit talks: Bulls in a china shop?

David Davis promised that Westminster will have the same scrutiny powers in the Brexit talks as the European Parliament would. But what does that really mean?
UK white paper on Brexit
2 February 2017
6 February 2017
The €60 billion Brexit bill: How to disentangle Britain from the EU budget

The €60 billion Brexit bill: How to disentangle Britain from the EU budget

A stand-off between the EU and Britain over the size of its exit bill could lead to the collapse of negotiations and an abrupt, disorderly Brexit.
Alex Barker
15 February 2017
Theresa May needs to compromise with the technocrats

Theresa May needs to compromise with the technocrats

As British prime minister, Theresa May has the right – and the power – to interpret the referendum result as she sees fit.
16 February 2017
CER podcast: What free movement means to Europe and why it matters to Britain

CER podcast: What free movement means to Europe and why it matters to Britain

Discussion on the politics and economics that underlie differing views of free movement in the UK and Europe.
20 February 2017
Mrs May's emerging deal on Brexit: Not just hard, but also difficult

Mrs May's emerging deal on Brexit: Not just hard, but also difficult

What will the Brexit deal look like? Which are the key decisions that Theresa May still has to make? And what should she do in order to get the best possible deal?
21 February 2017
The end of the transatlantic trade consensus?

The end of the transatlantic trade consensus?

Trump, Brexit and European scepticism about TTIP spell the end of transatlantic leadership on trade.
Rem Korteweg
22 February 2017
A quick trade deal with the US after Brexit is less likely than we think

A quick trade deal with the US after Brexit is less likely than we think

It is many a Brexiteer’s fantasy: In 2019, shortly after the UK formally leaves the EU, Theresa May welcomes Donald Trump to Downing Street to ink a trade pact.
Rem Korteweg
23 February 2017
Trump, trade and the EU: Two wrongs don't make a right

Trump, trade and the EU: Two wrongs don't make a right

The US will not gain by resorting to protectionism. If it does so, the EU should stay calm, listen when US criticism is justified, and make its first priority the defence of the WTO process and the rule of law.
Report: 'Deluded' UK cannot afford to be smug on Brexit

Report: 'Deluded' UK cannot afford to be smug on Brexit

Britain is in a weak negotiating position and will have to win the goodwill of leaders in Europe if it is to avoid economic chaos following Brexit, according to a report by independent think tank the Centre for European Reform (CER).
1 March 2017
Britische Trümpfe: London wird die Sicherheitspolitik in den Brexit-Verhandlungen nutzen wollen

Britische Trümpfe: London wird die Sicherheitspolitik in den Brexit-Verhandlungen nutzen wollen

Premierministerin Theresa May hat signalisiert, bei den Austrittsverhandlungen mit der EU auch Großbritanniens militär- und sicherheitspolitisches Gewicht in die Waagschale werden zu wollen – ein riskantes Spiel für die EU, aber auch für die Briten.
A quantum solace - defence in Brexit negotiations

A quantum solace - defence in Brexit negotiations

The UK's exit negotiations with the EU have not yet officially begun, but it is already becoming clear that no policy area will remain unaffected - not even security and defence policy cooperation.
7 March 2017
CER podcast: Charles Grant on Theresa May's emerging Brexit deal

CER podcast: Charles Grant on Theresa May's emerging Brexit deal

Discussion on the process of deciding the British position in Brexit negotiations, the value of the UK’s ‘trump cards’ and why European officials are pessimistic about finding a good agreement.
14 March 2017
The four traps Theresa May must avoid in her EU divorce letter

The four traps Theresa May must avoid in her EU divorce letter

To avoid disaster, Britain’s prime minister needs to get article 50 talks off to a good start – and that begins when she writes to Donald Tusk.
17 March 2017
Berlin to the rescue? A closer look at Germany's position on Brexit

Berlin to the rescue? A closer look at Germany's position on Brexit

Brexiters hope that Berlin will adopt an accommodating stance in the forthcoming negotiations because of Germany's economic and security interests. Such hopes are misplaced.
20 March 2017
Playing defence

Playing defence

The UK’s contributions to European defence will play a role in Brexit negotiations. But both sides should keep the long-term objective of close co-operation in mind.
UK triggers Article 50
29 March 2017
30 March 2017
CER podcast: Agata Gostyńska-Jakubowska on the triggering of Article 50

CER podcast: Agata Gostyńska-Jakubowska on the triggering of Article 50

Agata Gostyńska-Jakubowska talks to Sophia Besch about the triggering of Article 50, the tone and substance of the letter, how it was received in Brussels, and how we can expect negotiations to unfold. 
May announces snap election
18 April 2017
19 April 2017
Germany needs a strong EU. Why would it allow Britain an easy Brexit?

Germany needs a strong EU. Why would it allow Britain an easy Brexit?

Angela Merkel’s government has no interest in indulging the UK during the negotiations – and a general election won't change that.
24 April 2017
Brexiting Swiss-style: The best possible UK-EU trade deal

Brexiting Swiss-style: The best possible UK-EU trade deal

The softest form of hard Brexit that is plausible – given the red lines of the 27 and Britain – is something like Switzerland's deal with the EU.
25 April 2017
CER podcast: What UK-EU trade deal after Brexit?

CER podcast: What UK-EU trade deal after Brexit?

John Springford talks to Sophia Besch about about the best possible trade deal between the UK and the EU after Brexit. Based on new empirical research into the costs of trade barriers he argues for a ‘Swiss style’ Brexit.
29 April 2017
Das Märchen von der britischen Einzigartigkeit

Das Märchen von der britischen Einzigartigkeit

Die britische Elite hält ihr Land für dermaßen außergewöhnlich, dass es den Rest Europas nicht braucht. So war ihre Einstellung zur EU, so kam es zum Brexit. Und so wird es zu einer Demütigung der Briten kommen.
Simon Tilford
2 May 2017
Britain’s complacency over Brexit will end in humiliation

Britain’s complacency over Brexit will end in humiliation

France and Germany don't make the mistake of thinking they would be better off outside the EU. The UK is deluding itself if it thinks it will prosper.
Simon Tilford
3 May 2017
The British and their exceptionalism

The British and their exceptionalism

Few countries have allowed their sense of exceptionalism to damage their interests in the way Britain is doing. British overconfidence is unjustified and will come at a heavy price.
Simon Tilford
8 May 2017
How will Germany respond to Emmanuel Macron?

How will Germany respond to Emmanuel Macron?

Germany is divided on how to respond to Macron: some are wary of a new bargain to revive the Franco-German alliance, others are enthusiastic. 
9 May 2017
A prime minister unshackled

A prime minister unshackled

Checks on prime ministerial power are weak in Britain – and Theresa May’s massive parliamentary majority after the general election will weaken them further. In the context of Brexit, this is dangerous.
16 May 2017
Good cop, bad cop: How to keep Britain inside Europol

Good cop, bad cop: How to keep Britain inside Europol

A post-Brexit deal on Europol should be relatively easy to negotiate. The UK could retain a special status, but the British government will need to make some concessions.
18 May 2017
A flexible EU: A new beginning or the beginning of the end?

A flexible EU: A new beginning or the beginning of the end?

The EU needs to become more flexible if it is to tackle current and future challenges effectively. But it should do so transparently, and remain inclusive.
23 May 2017
CER podcast: Why the UK voted to leave, and lessons for the EU 27

CER podcast: Why the UK voted to leave, and lessons for the EU 27

CER podcast on the reasons the UK voted to leave, how these political trends played out in the French elections, and lessons for the EU 27.
John Springford, Matthew Goodwin, Paul Whiteley and Florence Faucher
29 May 2017
Why 'Brexit' will make Britain's mediocre economy worse

Why 'Brexit' will make Britain's mediocre economy worse

An observer of Britain's 'Brexit' debate would be forgiven for thinking that the country's economy is one of the European Union's star performers.
Simon Tilford
7 June 2017
CER podcast: UK election primer

CER podcast: UK election primer

On the day before the UK general election, Charles Grant and Simon Tilford discuss current polls, the effect of recent attacks on voting, which issues were not sufficiently discussed in the campaigns and what would be the best possible election result for Europe.
Sophia Besch, Charles Grant, Simon Tilford
May loses majority
8 June 2017
9 June 2017
What does the election result mean for Brexit?

What does the election result mean for Brexit?

Brexit barely figured in the UK's general election, but the result means that the country might yet have an election fought explicitly on the issue.
John Springford, Simon Tilford
10 June 2017
Te wybory to klęska May, rządu i torysów

Te wybory to klęska May, rządu i torysów

Wybory osłabiły pozycję Theresy May, także wewnątrz jej własnej Partii Konserwatywnej - mówi w rozmowie z Agencją Informacyjną Polska Press Agata Gostyńska-Jakubowska z think-tanku Centre for European Reform.
11 June 2017
May wanted a mandate for a hard Brexit. Now Europe expects a softer tone

May wanted a mandate for a hard Brexit. Now Europe expects a softer tone

Prime minister's crumbling authority offers a new chance for compromise – and the EU could scale back its demands.
15 June 2017
How should the EU react to Britain's general election?

How should the EU react to Britain's general election?

The EU-27 can force Britain's politicians to acknowledge Brexit’s trade-offs, by offering the British four options from which it must choose.
Simon Tilford, John Springford
First round of UK-EU exit negotiations begin
19 June 2017
The 10 Brexit compromises Theresa May won't talk about

The 10 Brexit compromises Theresa May won't talk about

Neither Theresa May nor Jeremy Corbyn said much about the substance of the Brexit negotiations during the election campaign.
23 June 2017
Hard Brexit, soft data: How to keep Britain plugged into EU databases

Hard Brexit, soft data: How to keep Britain plugged into EU databases

Retaining full access to EU databases fighting crime and terrorism will not be easy for Britain. Any deal will require a role for the European Court of Justice and keeping EU privacy laws.
27 June 2017
Britain prepares for a softer Brexit

Britain prepares for a softer Brexit

Britain’s general election has increased the chances of a ‘softer’ Brexit. But what would a softer Brexit look like? And could it include a customs union with the EU?
5 July 2017
Brexit maze: The role of EU institutions in the negotiations

Brexit maze: The role of EU institutions in the negotiations

Theresa May will be reluctant to openly discuss the difficult choices ahead of the UK. Citizens and business should look to the EU institutions for information about their future post-Brexit.
6 July 2017
The limits to Labour's 'constructive ambiguity' over Brexit

The limits to Labour's 'constructive ambiguity' over Brexit

Labour proposes a "jobs-first" and hard Brexit at the same time. This means the party can't capitalise on the Tories' stewardship of the economy.
Simon Tilford
7 July 2017
Ulster's fight, Ulster's rights? Brexit, Northern Ireland and the threat to British-Irish relations

Ulster's fight, Ulster's rights? Brexit, Northern Ireland and the threat to British-Irish relations

Brexit risks destabilising the peace process in Northern Ireland. The EU and UK may need to agree on a special status for the Province.
Edward Burke
10 July 2017
Arrested development: Why Brexit Britain cannot keep the European Arrest Warrant

Arrested development: Why Brexit Britain cannot keep the European Arrest Warrant

The European Arrest Warrant (EAW) has made it easier for the UK to extradite criminals. But once it leaves the EU, Britain will find it almost impossible to negotiate as good an arrangement as the EAW.
13 July 2017
Germany's labour reforms may not deserve their fame

Germany's labour reforms may not deserve their fame

Germany's start-of-the-century labour reforms are getting a lot of attention these days, both as the cure-all for the country's previous economic woes and as the culprit behind inequality.
17 July 2017
CER podcast: Brexit negotiations: Players and process on the EU side

CER podcast: Brexit negotiations: Players and process on the EU side

Sophia Besch talks to Agata Gostyńska-Jakubowska about the role of the European Commission, the member-states, the European Parliament and the ECJ in the Brexit talks.
20 July 2017
Brexit and the threat to Northern Ireland

Brexit and the threat to Northern Ireland

A hard Brexit risks many of the gains of twenty years of peace and cross-border co-operation in Northern Ireland. Only a special EU status can stop the rot.
Edward Burke
1 August 2017
Why Brexiters should get behind Philip Hammond's transition

Why Brexiters should get behind Philip Hammond's transition

A comprehensive transition that includes continued membership of the single market and customs union is ultimately in the interest of hardliners in the British government.
14 August 2017
Philip Hammond and Liam Fox's Brexit transition plan is a pipe dream

Philip Hammond and Liam Fox's Brexit transition plan is a pipe dream

The deal sketched out by the international trade secretary and the chancellor is one the EU could never agree to. Why did they go public with it?
No Britain, no missiles! EU has 'lot riding on' working with UK - ex-Macron defence aide

No Britain, no missiles! EU has 'lot riding on' working with UK - ex-Macron defence aide

Europe has a "lot riding on" securing continued defence co-operation with Britain after it has left the EU, the former advisor to French president Emmanuel Macron Francois Heisbourg has said in a CER podcast.
Francois Heisbourg
15 August 2017
Ekspert: okres przejściowy sprzyja miękkiemu Brexitowi

Ekspert: okres przejściowy sprzyja miękkiemu Brexitowi

Zawarcie w planach brytyjskiego rządu okresu przejściowego, w którym zachowane byłyby obecne przepisy dotyczące ceł, wskazuje na sukces zwolenników tzw. miękkiego Brexitu - ocenił w rozmowie z PAP John Springford z CER.
30 August 2017
What the German elections mean for Brexit

What the German elections mean for Brexit

The German elections will not affect the outcome of Brexit, whatever coalition partner Angela Merkel may choose.
3 September 2017
The EU is changing – and the UK attitude to Brexit could change too

The EU is changing – and the UK attitude to Brexit could change too

The people running the EU have always wanted it to be uniform.
18 September 2017
Preparing for a softer Brexit

Preparing for a softer Brexit

The UK's general election has increased the chances of a softer Brexit. But what would that look like? And could it involve a customs union with the European Union?
19 September 2017
How strong a Brexit card is Britain's money?

How strong a Brexit card is Britain's money?

Britain’s strongest card in the negotiations is the money that the 27 claim it owes to the EU. But the money card gives Britain a pair rather than a flush.
The EU will become less monolithic

The EU will become less monolithic

The EU is becoming less monolithic and will develop tiers of membership. This could re-energise the enlargement process and neighbourhood policy – and may allow the UK to re-engage one day.
May details Brexit stance, Florence speech
22 September 2017
25 September 2017
Brexit and energy: Time to make some hard choices

Brexit and energy: Time to make some hard choices

If Britain quits the EU’s single energy market, it will have to invest more in electricity generation, pay higher prices and accept a bigger state role in the energy sector.
Sir Philip Lowe
27 September 2017
Brexiters are being naive over US trade. Bombardier is a taste of things to come

Brexiters are being naive over US trade. Bombardier is a taste of things to come

Outside the EU's protective umbrella, Brexit Britain would be at the mercy of strong-arm US trade tactics.
Simon Tilford
2 October 2017
Andrea Leadsom refuses to deny Brexit splits with Theresa May

Andrea Leadsom refuses to deny Brexit splits with Theresa May

Former leadership candidate objected to Brexit transition terms and said: "I shall be in the cabinet just as long as the Prime Minister wants me to be".
18 October 2017
Judy Asks: Does May need Merkel for a Brexit deal?

Judy Asks: Does May need Merkel for a Brexit deal?

No, Theresa May needs to impose some discipline and unity on her own troops in order to achieve a workable deal.
30 October 2017
Populism – culture or economics?

Populism – culture or economics?

Are economic factors to blame for the rise of populism, or is it a cultural backlash? The answer is a bit of both: economic weakness strengthens social conservatives' illiberal views.
John Springford, Simon Tilford
31 October 2017
What explains the "Brexodus" from DExEU?

What explains the "Brexodus" from DExEU?

The Department for Exiting the European Union has slowly haemorrhaged civil servants ever since its inception last year.
Beth Oppenheim
7 November 2017
Fast forward to two-speed Europe

Fast forward to two-speed Europe

Macron's calls for a more flexible bloc will make it more attractive to new members.
Relaunching the EU

Relaunching the EU

The EU is ripe for fundamental reform. New policies are needed for migration and the euro. The EU also needs more flexible structures so that countries can opt in and out of key policies.
8 November 2017
CER podcasts: Relaunching the EU

CER podcasts: Relaunching the EU

The CER has launched a major new report ‘Relaunching the EU’. In this podcast mini-series, CER researchers explain some of the reports main recommendations.
9 November 2017
Unia nie chce ukarać Wielkiej Brytanii – Agata Gostyńska-Jakubowska w rozmowie z UKpoliticsPL

Unia nie chce ukarać Wielkiej Brytanii – Agata Gostyńska-Jakubowska w rozmowie z UKpoliticsPL

UKpoliticsPL: Jaki kierunek negocjacji z Wielką Brytanią przyjęła Unia Europejska?
How Brexit will unfold – Britain will get a deal, but it'll come at a price

How Brexit will unfold – Britain will get a deal, but it'll come at a price

The UK will end up paying €50bn and accepting a hard Irish border: 10 predictions based on my conversations with people on both sides.
16 November 2017
Dig for Victory?

Dig for Victory?

A UK trade deal with the US will create more problems for British agriculture and food consumers than it would solve.
Christian Odendahl, Beth Oppenheim, Christopher Haskins
17 November 2017
'Putting politics above prosperity' – wait, isn't that what the Brexiteers are doing?

'Putting politics above prosperity' – wait, isn't that what the Brexiteers are doing?

David Davis's ill-advised remark to an audience of German businessmen reveals an alarming ignorance about the way in which the EU is conducting negotiations.
20 November 2017
Speech by Michel Barnier at 'The future of the EU' conference

Speech by Michel Barnier at 'The future of the EU' conference

Michel Barnier spoke this at our 'The future of the EU' conference, click here to watch or read his speech.
Michel Barnier
Barnier says EU will not compromise standards in future UK trade deal

Barnier says EU will not compromise standards in future UK trade deal

Chief Brexit negotiator tells a CER conference today any move to abandon European laws and regulations will complicate agreement.
29 November 2017
Ten predictions for the Brexit talks

Ten predictions for the Brexit talks

Arguments over the Irish border may block the start of talks on the future EU-UK relationship. When those talks begin, the EU will reject British proposals for a bespoke deal.
1 December 2017
UK + EU = Canada+?

UK + EU = Canada+?

A post-Brexit deal along the lines of the EU-Canada trade agreement would do a lot of damage to the British economy. Can the UK hope for anything better?
Beth Oppenheim, Charles Grant
Europe holds all the cards in the Brexit talks

Europe holds all the cards in the Brexit talks

EU negotiators are confident Britain will eventually accept a deal on their terms.
5 December 2017
The case for a slow-motion Brexit

The case for a slow-motion Brexit

Recent chaos in the negotiations shows that a two-year "implementation period" is entirely unrealistic.
Beth Oppenheim
Joint report proposes solutions for Irish border
8 December 2017
18 December 2017
UK should work more closely with MEPs on Brexit

UK should work more closely with MEPs on Brexit

When it comes to engaging with the European Parliament on Britain's withdrawal from the EU, Brexit secretary David Davis looks to have made a wise call.
Brace yourself for the next Brexit faultline: The battle over transition

Brace yourself for the next Brexit faultline: The battle over transition

Will Theresa May be able to convince her party of the necessity for a transition period, during which the UK obeys EU rules without having any say in them?
19 December 2017
Brexit Britain faces a reality check on trade

Brexit Britain faces a reality check on trade

Britain and the European Union are finally set to begin what promises to be the toughest stage of the Brexit process: negotiating a new relationship and a transition phase to bed down the changes.
Charles Grant, Beth Oppenheim
20 December 2017
CER podcast: CER researchers review the year 2017

CER podcast: CER researchers review the year 2017

Charles Grant, Simon Tilford and Ian Bond review the political themes and events that shaped 2017, and take a look at some of the predictions they made last year.
5 January 2018
TPP: The UK is having a Pacific pipe dream

TPP: The UK is having a Pacific pipe dream

The DIT has suggested that Britain should join the Trans-Pacific Partnership — but who's to say that we'd be welcome?
15 January 2018
Conference report: How to save the EU

Conference report: How to save the EU

50 leading economists, political scientists and experts on the EU considered the forces undermining the Union, and how Europe should respond to them.
Because of Thatcherism, we can't get a good Brexit trade deal – here's why

Because of Thatcherism, we can't get a good Brexit trade deal – here's why

The UK's approach to deregulation led to a bout of economic restructuring that now makes it difficult for Britain to impose its will on the rest of the world, let alone Europe.
16 January 2018
Of transition and trade deals

Of transition and trade deals

The UK will not be able to replicate the EU’s free trade agreements ready for March 30th 2019. The only solution is to ask the EU for help.
22 January 2018
Holding out hope for a half-way Brexit house

Holding out hope for a half-way Brexit house

The UK is considering 'managed divergence' from EU rules, which the 27 will reject. A better strategy would be to remain in the customs union and single market for goods.
24 January 2018
CER Bulletin podcast: Trade post Brexit; EU vs Poland; Trump's foreign policy

CER Bulletin podcast: Trade post Brexit; EU vs Poland; Trump's foreign policy

In the CER Bulletin podcast, CER researchers brief podcast listeners on three of the most important topics for Europe this month.
26 January 2018
'Canada', 'Norway' or something in between?

'Canada', 'Norway' or something in between?

The EU will reject's Britain's request for a bespoke partnership based on regulatory alignment. The UK will have to put up with a Canada-style deal, unless it shifts its red lines.
30 January 2018
Brexit: A view from Warsaw

Brexit: A view from Warsaw

Poland has a lot of skin in the game when it comes to ensuring a good Brexit deal.
31 January 2018
CER podcast: Brexit negotiations phase 2: The politics of regulatory alignment

CER podcast: Brexit negotiations phase 2: The politics of regulatory alignment

Charles Grant talks to Sophia Besch about how the EU-27 view the British idea of a bespoke post-Brexit partnership based on regulatory alignment. 
1 February 2018
Statement regarding comments by Jacob Rees-Mogg and Steve Baker in House of Commons

Statement regarding comments by Jacob Rees-Mogg and Steve Baker in House of Commons

The CER would like to provide the following clarification following an exchange in the House of Commons involving Jacob Rees-Mogg and Steve Baker, Parliamentary Under Secretary of State at the DexEU which mentioned CER director Charles Grant. 
5 February 2018
Britain's services firms can't defy gravity, alas

Britain's services firms can't defy gravity, alas

Britain's specialism in traded services, some of which can be delivered electronically, has led Brexiters to claim that the country's trade will inevitably unmoor itself from Europe. In fact, Britain is not about to enter a "post-geography trading world".
Britain is drowning trying to land trade deals

Britain is drowning trying to land trade deals

Brexit equals new trade deals. With the US, with China, with India, with everyone. All that’s needed is a Royal Yacht, decent jam to sell and a “go get ’em attitude” — at least according to some of the loudest Leavers.
7 February 2018
Theresa May can't afford red lines on Brexit

Theresa May can't afford red lines on Brexit

Future relationship has to be a trade-off between rules and access.
15 February 2018
Brexit will damage UK services exports

Brexit will damage UK services exports

Distance and economy size are the most important factors determining the level of trade between two countries.
19 February 2018
Of course we will strike a bespoke Brexit deal — but that's not the point

Of course we will strike a bespoke Brexit deal — but that's not the point

The government’s “Road to Brexit” series of speeches has kicked off, with Boris Johnson and the Prime Minister making contributions so far.
23 February 2018
Theresa May's moment to soften her Brexit stance

Theresa May's moment to soften her Brexit stance

Twenty months after the Brexit referendum, the British government is inching towards working out what to ask for in its future relationship with the EU.
27 February 2018
The one thing May must remember: The 27 will not split

The one thing May must remember: The 27 will not split

Theresa May will be on a hiding to nothing this week if she tries to present a Brexit plan on managed divergence in the hope that it will divide and conquer the EU.
The Ukraine model for Brexit: Is dissociation just like association?

The Ukraine model for Brexit: Is dissociation just like association?

Some argue that a Ukraine-style association agreement offers the UK a viable model for its future relationship with the EU, combining both ‘sovereignty’ and close economic ties.
Beth Oppenheim
Commission publishes draft Withdrawal Agreement
28 February 2018
Liam Fox's shiny new trade deals won't compensate for hard Brexit

Liam Fox's shiny new trade deals won't compensate for hard Brexit

If Britain leaves the single market and customs union, the idea that future trade agreements will make up for the losses is for the birds.
2 March 2018
CER reaction to Prime Minister Theresa May's 'Road to Brexit' speech

CER reaction to Prime Minister Theresa May's 'Road to Brexit' speech

"Theresa May’s speech was serious. It was good that she recognised that the UK faces trade-offs and will lose some access to the single market."
5 March 2018
How to think about Britain's post Brexit foreign policy

How to think about Britain's post Brexit foreign policy

What impact will Brexit have on the UK’s foreign and security policy? While many Brexiteers argue it will lead to a global Britain, for many others it is clear it will result in a substantial loss of international influence.
6 March 2018
Plugging in the British: EU foreign policy

Plugging in the British: EU foreign policy

As part of the EU, the UK has been able to leverage the resources of other member-states to support Britain’s foreign and development priorities. After Brexit, that will be harder.
Germany should finally take the lead in Europe

Germany should finally take the lead in Europe

Now she has won a fourth term, Chancellor Merkel should put little-Germany thinking behind her and be the leader that Europe needs.
7 March 2018
Theresa May's Irish trilemma

Theresa May's Irish trilemma

Theresa May must choose two of the following three options: an exit from the single market and customs union, no hard border with Ireland, and an all-UK approach to Brexit.
8 March 2018
Jersey holds the key to unlock Brexit dilemma

Jersey holds the key to unlock Brexit dilemma

Could the Channel Islands hold the key to unlock the Brexit puzzle? Trade expert Sam Lowe of the CER told EURACTIV that Jersey’s ‘strange relationship’ with the EU could be an acceptable ‘halfway house’.
9 March 2018
Der ausgleichende Faktor wird fehlen

Der ausgleichende Faktor wird fehlen

Europa dürfte die Briten noch schmerzhaft vermissen, meint der Berliner Ökonom Christian Odendahl. Wichtige Errungenschaften der EU wie der Binnenmarkt und die Osterweiterung gingen direkt auf britische Bemühungen zurück.
13 March 2018
Brexit and rules of origin: Why free trade agreements ≠ free trade

Brexit and rules of origin: Why free trade agreements ≠ free trade

Without an EU-UK customs union British exporters will face a new barrier to trade: rules of origin. No amount of positive thinking and innovative solutions can eliminate this problem.
14 March 2018
CER podcast: Security after Brexit

CER podcast: Security after Brexit

Sophia Besch asks Camino Mortera-Martinez about future UK-EU justice and home affairs co-operation.
15 March 2018
Will the unity of the 27 crack?

Will the unity of the 27 crack?

Some British politicians believe that the 27 will divide during the Brexit trade negotiations, because of their differing economic interests. But disagreements between the 27 are minor, thanks to Theresa May's red lines.
John Springford, Sam Lowe, Beth Oppenheim
UK and EU agree on money, citizens' rights
19 March 2018
20 March 2018
Ireland's border is a problem it can't afford to leave unsolved

Ireland's border is a problem it can't afford to leave unsolved

The border issue could still wreck Brexit talks. But no-deal would damage Ireland almost as much as it would Britain.
22 March 2018
The member-states and the EU: Taking back control?

The member-states and the EU: Taking back control?

The irony of Brexit is that the EU is becoming more British just as the UK is leaving the EU.
British foreign policy after Brexit: Hand in hand?

British foreign policy after Brexit: Hand in hand?

British foreign policy priorities will change little after Brexit, but London will need to find new ways to rally EU support for them.
23 March 2018
Ukraine is no blueprint for Brexit success

Ukraine is no blueprint for Brexit success

As European leaders gather once again in Brussels, the European Parliament has recommended the UK consider an association agreement with the EU after Brexit.
Beth Oppenheim
27 March 2018
Brexit and the financial services industry: The story so far

Brexit and the financial services industry: The story so far

The City will survive Brexit, but it will not emerge unscathed. In order to remain competitive Britain’s financial services industry will need to adapt, as it has always done.
Mark Boleat
28 March 2018
Brexit financial services deal will be difficult

Brexit financial services deal will be difficult

The industry has accepted that so-called “passporting” rights will not be possible after Britain leaves the EU. The concept of “equivalence” has been mooted as a solution but even agreeing to that will be difficult.
Mark Boleat
CER podcast: Brexit negotiations: Will the unity of the 27 crack?

CER podcast: Brexit negotiations: Will the unity of the 27 crack?

Sophia Besch speaks to Beth Oppenheim and Sam Lowe about what to expect during the second part of Brexit negotiations – will the future relationship talks bring out different political and economic interests among the EU-27?
Sophia Besch, Beth Oppenheim, Sam Lowe
5 April 2018
Why Britain's vision for post-Brexit trade deals is probably an illusion

Why Britain's vision for post-Brexit trade deals is probably an illusion

Is the United Kingdom actually a global bastion of free trade and liberalism? The honest answer is that we just don’t know yet.
9 April 2018
The UK and Europe: Brexit, rules of origin and barriers to trade

The UK and Europe: Brexit, rules of origin and barriers to trade

Where is the phone in your hand actually from? Designed in California, assembled in China, it says. But what about the components: the battery, the screen, the processor?
11 April 2018
Theresa's Irish trilemma

Theresa's Irish trilemma

Theresa May must soon deal with an invidious trilemma. She can only choose two of three options: leaving the single market and customs union, maintaining a border-free Ireland, and pursuing a whole-UK approach to Brexit.
CER Bulletin podcast: EU reform; Brexit and foreign policy; Europe and cyber security

CER Bulletin podcast: EU reform; Brexit and foreign policy; Europe and cyber security

In the CER Bulletin podcast, CER researchers brief podcast listeners on three of the most important topics for Europe this month. 
12 April 2018
Is Labour selling the UK a Turkey?

Is Labour selling the UK a Turkey?

A future UK-EU customs union should not be ruled out. While it would place some constraints on a future UK independent trade policy, the positives far outweigh the negatives. 
13 April 2018
Don't be a stranger! EU-UK foreign policy co-operation after Brexit

Don't be a stranger! EU-UK foreign policy co-operation after Brexit

The world feels a dangerous place at present. Relations between the West and Russia are at their most confrontational since the Cold War.
23 April 2018
Post-Brexit hygiene checks will leave British fishermen all at sea

Post-Brexit hygiene checks will leave British fishermen all at sea

On the March 19th the UK and EU agreed, in principle, on a post-Brexit transition period. While this was welcomed by the vast majority of British business, one group felt they had been sold down the river: fishermen.
24 April 2018
The EU budget after Brexit: Reform not revolution

The EU budget after Brexit: Reform not revolution

With the UK leaving, the EU needs a revised budget. It should cut rebates, agriculture spending, and structural funds; and spend more on border security, education, and research.
26 April 2018
Plugging in the British: EU defence policy

Plugging in the British: EU defence policy

Both Britain and the EU would benefit from working together to keep Europe safe, even after Brexit. But economic protectionism and a desire for autonomy may get in the way.
3 May 2018
A hitchhiker's guide to Galileo and Brexit

A hitchhiker's guide to Galileo and Brexit

The debate between the UK and the EU over British participation in the EU’s space programme ‘Galileo’ shows how difficult it will be to disentangle economic and security interests during Brexit negotiations. 
8 May 2018
Theresa May's meaningless meaningful vote?

Theresa May's meaningless meaningful vote?

Though many British parliamentarians believe Brexit will harm the UK, it is unlikely that they will derail it. However, Westminster could help to mitigate its negative consequences. 
10 May 2018
The battle over Europe's budget

The battle over Europe's budget

Negotiations on the “Multiannual Financial Framework” are getting underway, but how to make up the Brexit-shaped shortfall?
Beth Oppenheim
15 May 2018
UK must swallow the unpalatable Irish backstop

UK must swallow the unpalatable Irish backstop

Theresa May and the Brexiters should have the courage of their convictions and agree to a backstop that grants a special status to Northern Ireland. 
17 May 2018
Theresa May's Cabinet customs row is irrelevant, it's the Brexit backstop that really matters

Theresa May's Cabinet customs row is irrelevant, it's the Brexit backstop that really matters

Theresa May and her Cabinet are currently embroiled in a heated and public debate over potential post-Brexit customs arrangements.
25 May 2018
Plugging in the British: EU justice and home affairs

Plugging in the British: EU justice and home affairs

Police and judicial co-operation will not be easier to negotiate than trade. To get a good deal, the UK and the EU need to move beyond their hard-line opening positions.
30 May 2018
The first Swiss lesson for Brexit Britain: Negotiations never end

The first Swiss lesson for Brexit Britain: Negotiations never end

Like Switzerland we will always be arguing over something or other with the superpower on our doorstep.
7 June 2018
Merkel, Macron and the euro

Merkel, Macron and the euro

In an email forum, three experts chime in on the German chancellor’s proposal for the eurozone.
John Springford, Pepijn Bergsen, Guntram B. Wolff
12 June 2018
MPs have been given a say on Brexit — they should use it

MPs have been given a say on Brexit — they should use it

Last month the House of Lords sent Theresa May a clear message — Brexit does not have to mean her version of Brexit.
13 June 2018
Is Macron becoming isolated in Europe?

Is Macron becoming isolated in Europe?

Macron thinks the EU is not viable without radical reform. His priority is to reshape the eurozone, but Germany is blocking his bolder ideas. He risks isolation in Europe, which could weaken him at home.
14 June 2018
CER Bulletin podcast: Transatlantic relationship; Brexit and financial services; UK-EU defence negotiations

CER Bulletin podcast: Transatlantic relationship; Brexit and financial services; UK-EU defence negotiations

CER researchers brief podcast listeners on three of the most important topics for Europe this month. 
20 June 2018
Single market in goods will come at a price for Brexit Britain

Single market in goods will come at a price for Brexit Britain

Many of the recent arguments over Brexit have concerned customs arrangements. But another thorny issue is creating discord both inside the British government and between the UK and the EU: should the UK remain in the single market for goods trade?
CER podcast: Is Macron becoming isolated in Europe?

CER podcast: Is Macron becoming isolated in Europe?

Sophia Besch asks Charles Grant about Macron's progress on his reform agenda so far.
21 June 2018
A potential Brexit landing point moves slowly into view?

A potential Brexit landing point moves slowly into view?

Something like single market membership for goods would go a way to solving the Irish issue.
22 June 2018
Plugging in the British: Completing the circuit

Plugging in the British: Completing the circuit

Post-Brexit internal and external security co-operation arrangements seem as hard for the EU and UK to agree on as trade. Other third countries’ relationships with the EU provide models.
23 June 2018
What's the cost of Brexit so far?

What's the cost of Brexit so far?

New analysis by the CER – which we will update quarterly – estimates that the UK economy is 2.1 per cent smaller as a result of the vote to leave the EU.
26 June 2018
The UK and Europe: What's the cost of Brexit so far?

The UK and Europe: What's the cost of Brexit so far?

Any reasonable observer will acknowledge that the Brexit vote has curbed economic growth.
28 June 2018
Moving on after Galileo – lessons (to be) learnt

Moving on after Galileo – lessons (to be) learnt

The EU and the UK have not been able to come to an agreement over Britain’s participation in the Galileo programme.
4 July 2018
CER podcast: Plugging in the British to EU justice and home affairs

CER podcast: Plugging in the British to EU justice and home affairs

Sophia Besch asks Camino Mortera-Martinez whether the UK will stay plugged into EU justice and home affairs structures after Brexit.
6 July 2018
The first coherent Brexit plan that Britain has produced... the EU will never agree to it

The first coherent Brexit plan that Britain has produced... the EU will never agree to it

On Thursday The Times obtained a draft of Theresa May’s plan for Brexit. Sam Lowe, of the Centre for European Reform, analyses the prime minister’s preferred way forward.
7 July 2018
After May's deal, many people will ask, does Brexit have any point?

After May's deal, many people will ask, does Brexit have any point?

Three experts, Vernon Bogdanor, Charles Grant and Claire Fox give their verdict on the compromise agreed by the prime minister and her cabinet.
10 July 2018
Europe's response to May's plan could cost her more ministers

Europe's response to May's plan could cost her more ministers

The EU’s initial reaction to the Chequers plan is polite, but negative. The prime minister will have to make further concessions before it is accepted.
11 July 2018
Inching our way towards Jersey

Inching our way towards Jersey

The EU will probably reject Theresa May’s Chequers compromise. Rather than confronting the EU on its fundamental principles, the UK should build upon the foundations of a customs union.
CER event podcast: CER/KAS Conference on 'Plugging in the British: Completing the circuit'

CER event podcast: CER/KAS Conference on 'Plugging in the British: Completing the circuit'

Three panels of experts gathered at the CER/KAS conference, ‘Plugging in the British: Completing the Circuit’ at the Royal United Services Institute.
Sophia Besch, Ian Bond, Charles Grant, Camino Mortera-Martinez, Yvette Cooper MP, Claude Moraes MEP, Peter Storr, Rosa Balfour, Simon Fraser, Paul Johnston, Nick Westcott, Felix Dane, Paul Everitt, Kori Schake, Julie Smith
13 July 2018
CER podcast: A guide to the White Paper

CER podcast: A guide to the White Paper

Beth Oppenheim asks Sam Lowe about the UK government's recent White Paper on Brexit, and whether it stands any chance of being accepted by the EU.
Sam Lowe, Beth Oppenheim
20 July 2018
The EU's problem with May's plan for Brexit

The EU's problem with May's plan for Brexit

The EU doesn’t like the UK’s plan for Brexit and says one cannot be in just parts of the single market. But if May shifts her red lines, the EU response could be more positive.
Dead or alive? A UK-US trade deal

Dead or alive? A UK-US trade deal

The Chequers proposal would likely come at the cost of a transatlantic trade deal, but Theresa May is right to prioritise ties with the EU.
Sam Lowe, Beth Oppenheim
15 August 2018
How can we stop the M20 from turning into a lorry park?

How can we stop the M20 from turning into a lorry park?

To avoid disruption to just-in-time production, and safeguard British manufacturing’s position, Theresa May wants the UK to remain within the EU’s regulatory union for goods, alongside a customs union.
5 September 2018
Why May needs Brexit to go down to the wire

Why May needs Brexit to go down to the wire

Michel Barnier has repeatedly warned the British that the clock is ticking in the Brexit negotiations, and there is wide consensus that Britain needs to get its skates on.
10 September 2018
Brexit and defence negotiations

Brexit and defence negotiations

In the enthusiasm about the EU’s numerous new defence initiatives in Germany, a discussion of the consequences of Britain’s withdrawal from the union is often curiously absent.
11 September 2018
Debunking the paper championed by Jacob Rees Mogg claiming a no-deal Brexit would boost the economy

Debunking the paper championed by Jacob Rees Mogg claiming a no-deal Brexit would boost the economy

The Brexit debate deserves so much better than Economists for Free Trade’s latest offering.
12 September 2018
Theresa May's Chequers plan may yet have some life in it

Theresa May's Chequers plan may yet have some life in it

Theresa May’s Chequers plan for the future UK-EU relationship appears moribund.
CER podcast: Another referendum?

CER podcast: Another referendum?

Sophia Besch asks Agata Gostyńska-Jakubowska and Beth Oppenheim about the prospects for another Brexit referendum.
21 September 2018
Brexit: «Wir werden noch zehn Jahre verhandeln»

Brexit: «Wir werden noch zehn Jahre verhandeln»

Charles Grant, Direktor der britischen Denkfabrik «Centre for European Reform», spricht im Interview über die Starrsinnigkeit Brüsseler Juristen, den weiteren Verlauf des Brexits und die Chancen von Boris Johnson als Premierminister.
24 September 2018
After Salzburg: How to salvage the Brexit negotiations

After Salzburg: How to salvage the Brexit negotiations

Although EU leaders delivered the coup de grace to Theresa May’s Chequers plan in Salzburg avoiding no deal is still possible, but it will require some tough choices on the Irish backstop. 
Jacob Rees-Mogg and fellow Brexiteers' latest trade proposals, fact-checked

Jacob Rees-Mogg and fellow Brexiteers' latest trade proposals, fact-checked

The past weeks have seen the publication of a stream of reports making the case for a harder Brexit.
28 September 2018
The EU should not fret about Singapore-on-Thames

The EU should not fret about Singapore-on-Thames

At the Salzburg EU informal summit on September 20th, EU leaders read the last rites on Theresa May’s Chequers plan.
There’s nothing ‘super’ about Boris Johnson’s tired old Brexit ideas

There’s nothing ‘super’ about Boris Johnson’s tired old Brexit ideas

If Boris Johnson puts pen to paper and it doesn’t get on the front page of the Telegraph, did it really happen? I guess we’ll never know.
CER Bulletin podcast: Singapore-on-Thames; the Western Balkans; Italy

CER Bulletin podcast: Singapore-on-Thames; the Western Balkans; Italy

In the CER Bulletin podcast, CER researchers brief podcast listeners on three of the most important topics for Europe this month. 
30 September 2018
The cost of Brexit to June 2018

The cost of Brexit to June 2018

The British economy is 2.5 per cent smaller than it would be if Remain had won in 2016, according to the latest update of the CER's cost of Brexit model.
3 October 2018
Britain's best Brexit hope is a revised Chequers plan

Britain's best Brexit hope is a revised Chequers plan

A Brexit deal between the EU and the UK is more likely than not, because both sides really want one. But there is a serious chance of no deal, because of differences over the Irish “backstop”.
Weetabix wars and X-Men: Welcome to the wacky world of trade post-Brexit

Weetabix wars and X-Men: Welcome to the wacky world of trade post-Brexit

As a UK that goes it alone will soon learn, trade disputes are complex, bizarre and at times, well, a little petty.
4 October 2018
La muger que nunca ganaba a las damas

La muger que nunca ganaba a las damas

Como una buena reina del baile, Theresa May va a necesitar la creatividad de un buen jugador de ajedrez para cuadrar el círculo irlandés.
8 October 2018
Remainers shouldn't assume EU leaders will welcome another Brexit referendum

Remainers shouldn't assume EU leaders will welcome another Brexit referendum

Prime Minister Theresa May has yet again ruled out a new EU referendum. There has already been a people’s vote, and the people voted to leave, she told her party conference last week.
10 October 2018
„May ist ein Desaster”

„May ist ein Desaster”

Das Endspiel hat begonnen: Brexit-Experte Charles Grant über den Niedergang der politischen Klasse in England, das Trauerspiel der Premierministerin – und das Vorbild Schweiz.
16 October 2018
Cumbres borrascosas

Cumbres borrascosas

Esta no es la mejor semana para ser corresponsal, diplómatico o turista en Bruselas. Entre el martes y el viernes, la ciudad habrá acogido siete cumbres. 
17 October 2018
Regime Change? The European Economy to 2030

Regime Change? The European Economy to 2030

After a decade of putting out the fires of the Great Recession of 2008-09, the euro crisis of 2010-12, and the migration crisis, which blew up in 2015, now is the right time to ask: What regime does the European economy need by 2030?
19 October 2018
Debunking Jacob Rees-Mogg’s claim an extension period will make the UK a ‘vassal state’

Debunking Jacob Rees-Mogg’s claim an extension period will make the UK a ‘vassal state’

In an effort to break the Brexit negotiation deadlock over the Irish backstop, it is reported that Theresa May has conceded that the standstill transition period could be extended beyond its current deadline of December 2020.
A second Brexit referendum is wishful thinking

A second Brexit referendum is wishful thinking

The UK's 2016 Brexit referendum was meant to put the vexed question of Britain's relationship with Europe to bed forever - it didn't. 
Beth Oppenheim
20 October 2018
Ekspert: Briti parlament hoiab peaminister Mayd kahvlis

Ekspert: Briti parlament hoiab peaminister Mayd kahvlis

Sõltumata sellest, kas Ühendkuningriigi peaminister Theresa May tooks Brüsselist koju pehme või karmi Brexiti, püsib tõenäosus, et Briti parlament sellega ei nõustu, selgub intervjuust mõttekoja Centre for European Reform vanemteaduri Agata Gostyńska-Jakubowska.
24 October 2018
CER podcast: The cost of Brexit to June 2018

CER podcast: The cost of Brexit to June 2018

The UK economy is 2.5 per cent smaller as a result of the vote to leave the EU. John Springford talks to Beth Oppenheim about his latest analysis, how he has refined his modelling method and the implications of the findings. 
Beth Oppenheim, John Springford
30 October 2018
Merkel is going but Germany won’t shift its stance on Brexit

Merkel is going but Germany won’t shift its stance on Brexit

The departure of Angela Merkel from the leadership of her party will make little difference to the Brexit negotiations.
5 November 2018
Why a woolly political declaration might help Theresa May get her Brexit deal through Parliament

Why a woolly political declaration might help Theresa May get her Brexit deal through Parliament

The political declaration on the post-Brexit relationship between the EU and UK will probably be vague and lack legal authority. This could work to Theresa May's advantage.
12 November 2018
Whether transition extension or backstop, Britain needs to embrace the consequences

Whether transition extension or backstop, Britain needs to embrace the consequences

If reports are correct, the landing zone for Northern Ireland and the Brexit Withdrawal Agreement is in sight.
May's reckoning with the Tory right over Brexit is fast approaching

May's reckoning with the Tory right over Brexit is fast approaching

Over the years, different Conservative leaders have tended to use similar tactics to deal with the rightwing anti-EU minority in the party.
May and EU publish Withdrawal Agreement
14 November 2018
15 November 2018
Brexit deal done – now for the hard part

Brexit deal done – now for the hard part

Theresa May’s Brexit deal offers some crumbs to Tory hardliners, the DUP and soft Brexiteers. But if the deal passes through parliament, a UK-EU customs union is likely.
16 November 2018
What happens if Parliament rejects May's Brexit deal?

What happens if Parliament rejects May's Brexit deal?

Theresa May's deal on Brexit is heading for defeat in Parliament. That could lead to no deal, the negotiation of a different deal, a general election, a second referendum – or MPs swallowing the package at the second attempt.
19 November 2018
Yo o el caos: ¿conseguirá Theresa May sobrevivir a su propio 'brexit'?

Yo o el caos: ¿conseguirá Theresa May sobrevivir a su propio 'brexit'?

Los oponentes de Theresa May tienen ahora una tarea formidable: convencer al electorado de que después de May no viene el diluvio.
21 November 2018
CER podcast: A guide to the withdrawal agreement

CER podcast: A guide to the withdrawal agreement

Beth Oppenheim asks John Springford what is in the 585 page withdrawal agreement, and Charles Grant outlines what might happen next: will Theresa May and her withdrawal plan survive?
EU endorses Withdrawal Agreement
25 November 2018
29 November 2018
An effective UK trade policy and a customs union are compatible

An effective UK trade policy and a customs union are compatible

If the UK enters into a customs union with the European Union it will be able to operate an effective trade policy, but the political focus would need to shift away from headline-grabbing, comprehensive free trade agreements.
6 December 2018
Brexit and services: How deep can the UK-EU relationship go?

Brexit and services: How deep can the UK-EU relationship go?

Even if the UK entered into an ambitious and comprehensive free trade agreement with the EU, leaving the single market would mean new restrictions on British services exports.
12 December 2018
Review: Plugging In the British: Completing the Circuit

Review: Plugging In the British: Completing the Circuit

Brexit has proved surprisingly difficult to implement, not just in economic affairs, where analysts always expected problems, but in many other areas, too.
May announces date for vote on Brexit deal
17 December 2018
18 December 2018
Brexit's impact on services

Brexit's impact on services

Trade in services has not received enough attention in the Brexit debate. But if Theresa May follows through on plans for the UK to leave the single market, UK services exports to the EU-27 will likely fall, in the case of financial services by more than half, and related jobs and tax revenues will suffer.
19 December 2018
How can Father Christmas deliver presents in a no deal Brexit scenario? Baby, it's cold outside (the EU)

How can Father Christmas deliver presents in a no deal Brexit scenario? Baby, it's cold outside (the EU)

In the run up to 25th December, there is one issue that has not received half the attention it deserves: what happens to Father Christmas in December 2019 in the event of a no deal Brexit?
7 January 2019
Food prices will go up, not down, after a no-deal Brexit – despite what Jacob Rees-Mogg says

Food prices will go up, not down, after a no-deal Brexit – despite what Jacob Rees-Mogg says

Could Brexit mean cheaper food on our supermarket shelves? The idea has been propagated by politicians such as Jacob Rees-Mogg and business people like JD Wetherspoon’s owner Tim Martin, who promised lower prices in his “Beermat Manifesto”.
8 January 2019
Brexit negotiations in the field of defence: Lessons learnt and moving forward

Brexit negotiations in the field of defence: Lessons learnt and moving forward

It is clearly in Britain and the European Union’s mutual interest to continue working closely together on defence after Brexit.
14 January 2019
In search of lost Brexit: How the UK repeatedly weakened its own negotiating position

In search of lost Brexit: How the UK repeatedly weakened its own negotiating position

In 2018 the British were obsessed with Brexit, but the rest of the EU had much else to worry about. Although the migration crisis abated, EU governments could not agree on how to handle irregular immigration.
16 January 2019
After the meaningful vote: What are Theresa May's options?

After the meaningful vote: What are Theresa May's options?

Theresa May can only win a parliamentary majority for her withdrawal agreement by agreeing to negotiate a softer relationship with the EU.
17 January 2019
¿Cuáles son las opciones de Theresa May?

¿Cuáles son las opciones de Theresa May?

La única manera que tiene Theresa May de obtener una mayoría parlamentaria a favor de su acuerdo de retirada es estar dispuesta a negociar una relación más blanda con la UE.
23 January 2019
Divided Britain will be weaker, poorer after looming Brexit

Divided Britain will be weaker, poorer after looming Brexit

With the March 29 deadline for Britain's leaving the European Union fast approaching, it is still uncertain whether the exit will be a hard or a soft one. The Asahi Shimbun interviewed Charles Grant, the head of a British think-tank, to ascertain what can be expected from the Brexit as well as the possible economic impact and other effects.
27 January 2019
Brexit: £17bn already ripped out of UK public purse due to decision to quit EU, research shows

Brexit: £17bn already ripped out of UK public purse due to decision to quit EU, research shows

Exclusive: The think-tank study indicates GDP would be 2.3 per cent higher had the UK voted to remain in the EU.
The cost of Brexit to September 2018

The cost of Brexit to September 2018

The UK economy is 2.3 per cent smaller than it would be if Britain had voted to remain in the European Union.
28 January 2019
'Doppelgänger UK' shows Britain's economy is 2.3% smaller because of Brexit

'Doppelgänger UK' shows Britain's economy is 2.3% smaller because of Brexit

Britain voted to leave the European Union over two years ago and as of 29 March this year, it will sever ties for good. While Brexit hasn’t technically happened yet, it has caused the economy to be 2.3% smaller than if Brits voted to remain in the EU.
That’s...
El 'brexit' y las reglas de la improvisación

El 'brexit' y las reglas de la improvisación

La falta de guion, o de Constitución escrita, ha desembocado en una lucha encarnizada entre el Gobierno de May y la Cámara de los Comunes por hacerse con el control del proceso.
1 February 2019
The other May problem

The other May problem

Many officials believe we will need – and could easily get – an extension to the March 29 deadline for Brexit. But, with European elections looming in May, this may prove far trickier than we imagine.
6 February 2019
Can the UK extend the Brexit deadline?

Can the UK extend the Brexit deadline?

It is becoming increasingly likely that the UK will have to request extension of the Article 50 deadline. But a longer extension might mean that the UK would have to hold European Parliament elections.
7 February 2019
Forget new trade deals – Britain’s struggling to keep the ones it has

Forget new trade deals – Britain’s struggling to keep the ones it has

Liam Fox said up to 40 would be ready one second after Brexit. Well, they won’t, and the government must be honest about it.
May loses meaningful vote
15 February 2019
4 March 2019
CER podcast: What next for Brexit?

CER podcast: What next for Brexit?

Beth Oppenheim asks Charles Grant to weigh up the possible Brexit scenarios: will Theresa May's deal make it through parliament, or will the UK end up with no deal, a general election, or a referendum?
Charles Grant, Beth Oppenheim
12 March 2019
Der verklärte Austritt

Der verklärte Austritt

Theresa May steht vor einem politischen Scherben­haufen. Der Brexit-Deal, den die britische Premier­ministerin nach vielen Monaten mit der EU ausgehandelt hat, wird im Parlament, wenn überhaupt, nur eine erzwungene Mehrheit finden. Verschoben wird der EU-Austritt sowieso – auf Mai, auf Juni oder vielleicht auf den Sankt-Nimmerleins-Tag.
13 March 2019
Europe without the UK: Liberated or diminished?

Europe without the UK: Liberated or diminished?

In 2016 the CER made ten predictions about the effect of Brexit on future EU policy. How do they stand up now, on the eve of the UK’s departure?
14 March 2019
Three reasons the Irish backstop is actually a good thing

Three reasons the Irish backstop is actually a good thing

The Westminster debate on the Irish backstop is deeply divisive. This protocol would see Northern Ireland remain de facto in the single market for goods, and the whole UK in a customs union, in the event that another solution is not found.
Brytyjczycy chcą opóźnić brexit. "Rząd traci kontrolę nad tym procesem"

Brytyjczycy chcą opóźnić brexit. "Rząd traci kontrolę nad tym procesem"

Wciąż nie ma pewności, kiedy i w jaki sposób Wielka Brytania opuści Unię Europejską. Głosowania w Izbie Gmin niczego nie zmieniły. – Brexit bez umowy wciąż wchodzi w grę – przyznaje ekspertka Centre European for Reform.
17 March 2019
No deal, no border

No deal, no border

In the event of no deal Brexit, we now know the UK’s plan for the border between Ireland and Northern Ireland: pretend it doesn’t exist.
22 March 2019
Dreaming of life after Brexit

Dreaming of life after Brexit

The British public is growing tired of Brexit. But assuming something that looks like the withdrawal agreement is signed off, what comes next?  
Brexit day I
May loses 2nd meaningful vote
29 March 2019
30 March 2019
The cost of Brexit to December 2018: Towards relative decline?

The cost of Brexit to December 2018: Towards relative decline?

The UK economy is 2.5 per cent smaller than it would be if Britain had voted to remain in the European Union. The knock-on hit to the public finances is £19 billion – or £145 million a week.
The reality of Britain's role in the global trading system after Brexit remains deeply uncertain

The reality of Britain's role in the global trading system after Brexit remains deeply uncertain

Continuity agreements are in place with a small number of countries but replicating the arrangements that Britain currently benefits from will be the overriding priority throughout the transition period - if there is one - and beyond.
Indicative votes - no majority for any proposals
1 April 2019
Remainers, take note: Much of Europe just wants to excise the British cancer

Remainers, take note: Much of Europe just wants to excise the British cancer

The mood in Brussels is pessimistic. Most of those closely involved in the Brexit talks think the likeliest outcome is for the UK to leave without a deal.
4 April 2019
No-deal Brexit would not be the end of the world – just very, very, very bad

No-deal Brexit would not be the end of the world – just very, very, very bad

Despite all of the evidence to the contrary, some have convinced themselves that exiting the EU without an agreement – “no deal” – is a good idea. It is not.
May asks for extension to 30 June 2019
5 April 2019
At emergency EU summit, Brexit extension agreed until 31 October 2019
10 April 2019
11 April 2019
Judy Asks: Is Brexit bad for Europe?

Judy Asks: Is Brexit bad for Europe?

Yes – and that’s not just British hubris. True, Britain has always been an awkward member of the EU, pushing back against continental hopes for a more federalist Union.
Beth Oppenheim
12 April 2019
Not so fast! Westminster's (continuous) oversight of European affairs post-Brexit

Not so fast! Westminster's (continuous) oversight of European affairs post-Brexit

The UK will not be able to make a clean break from the EU and its laws post-Brexit. Westminster should develop new scrutiny structures which would enable parliamentarians to better navigate yet unknown post-Brexit reality.
9 May 2019
Representative Democracy in the EU: Not such a clean break: Westminster's continuous oversight of EU affairs post-Brexit

Representative Democracy in the EU: Not such a clean break: Westminster's continuous oversight of EU affairs post-Brexit

Agata Gostyńska-Jakubowska of the CER contributed a chapter titled 'Not such a clean break: Westminster's continuous oversight of EU affairs post-Brexit', see page 333, in Representative Democracy in the EU.
13 May 2019
Why Europe's capital cities are pulling away from their countries – and what we can do about it

Why Europe's capital cities are pulling away from their countries – and what we can do about it

Europe’s capital cities are much more productive than smaller cities and towns: the average metropolitan worker produces about 50 per cent more output than workers elsewhere. The divide between capitals and everywhere else is growing, too.
14 May 2019
The Brussels view of Brexit

The Brussels view of Brexit

The EU is no longer as united as it was on how to handle the British. But just about everyone working on Brexit in the EU’s institutions and governments is fed up with them, and they do not believe that Britain’s politicians are capable of getting their act together and resolving the problem.
European elections
23 May 2019
May announces resignation
24 May 2019
29 May 2019
Northern Ireland and the backstop: Why 'alternative arrangements' aren't an alternative

Northern Ireland and the backstop: Why 'alternative arrangements' aren't an alternative

Technical fixes for the Irish border will only work if created in conjunction with affected communities and businesses.
3 June 2019
The UK has much to fear from a US trade agreement

The UK has much to fear from a US trade agreement

Any deal with Trump would likely stray into areas such as food safety and drug pricing — and the president would come back for more.
5 June 2019
CER podcast: What is a customs union?

CER podcast: What is a customs union?

Sophia Besch asks Sam Lowe to explain what a customs union is. Sam argues that a customs union is still compatible with an effective UK trade policy.
27 June 2019
Now is the worst time for 'global Britain'

Now is the worst time for 'global Britain'

Global trade integration has stalled since the financial crisis, and is unlikely to pick up steam any time soon. In that context, plans for ‘global Britain’ will do little to offset the costs of Brexit.
18 July 2019
What's next for Europe's capital markets?

What's next for Europe's capital markets?

Without the UK, even integrated EU capital markets would be too small to meet the funding needs of European businesses. That is why global engagement, even at the cost of losing regulatory control, is critical.
Jonathan Faull, Simon Gleeson
19 July 2019
EU officials don't relish the idea of no deal – but they are prepared to play hardball

EU officials don't relish the idea of no deal – but they are prepared to play hardball

Brussels is gloomy about the prospect of Britain crashing out, but political realities could see a compromise emerge.
22 July 2019
Boris Johnson and Brexit: What to expect

Boris Johnson and Brexit: What to expect

There are no compromises on the backstop acceptable to the EU or a Johnson-led government. A general election fought by the Conservatives on a no deal ticket is therefore very likely.
Boris Johnson becomes new PM
24 July 2019
1 August 2019
No-deal Brexit means trouble for Brits living in the EU

No-deal Brexit means trouble for Brits living in the EU

If the UK leaves the EU without a deal, Brits living in EU countries will face a number of hurdles to securing residence. And some will be worse off than others. 
What next for the EU's capital markets union?

What next for the EU's capital markets union?

Europe needs deep and liquid capital markets. The best way to ensure that is to open up to global capital markets, including London. 
Jonathan Faull, Simon Gleeson
8 August 2019
No-deal Brexit spells trouble for British expats in Europe

No-deal Brexit spells trouble for British expats in Europe

If you’re heading over to the continent for your holidays (or there already) and find yourself wincing at the Brexit-weakened exchange rate as you cough up for your cerveza, please spare a thought for the 1.3 million Britons who live in the EU.
9 August 2019
A no-deal Brexit is less inevitable than it looks

A no-deal Brexit is less inevitable than it looks

Boris Johnson says he won’t talk to the EU unless it agrees to scrap the Irish backstop.
12 August 2019
A no-deal Brexit is not inevitable

A no-deal Brexit is not inevitable

A majority of MPs want to avoid a no-deal Brexit on October 31st. But if Boris Johnson is determined to leave the EU without a deal, MPs will struggle to stop him.
Proroguing of Parliament
28 August 2019
3 September 2019
How would negotiations after a no-deal Brexit play out?

How would negotiations after a no-deal Brexit play out?

After no deal, the EU would demand that the UK sign up to the provisions of the withdrawal agreement, but in exchange for an emergency deal that is far worse than the standstill transition.
4 September 2019
Brytyjskiej tragifarsy ciąg dalszy

Brytyjskiej tragifarsy ciąg dalszy

Tylko niepoprawny optymista może mieć nadzieję, że brexitowa saga dobiega końca. Nie pozostaje nam nic innego, jak uzbroić się w cierpliwość, czekając na kolejną odsłonę tego spektaklu.
5 September 2019
Written evidence to the European Scrutiny Committee's inquiry on post-Brexit scrutiny of EU law and policy

Written evidence to the European Scrutiny Committee's inquiry on post-Brexit scrutiny of EU law and policy

Written evidence submitted by Agata Gostyńska-Jakubowska, a senior research fellow at the Centre for European Reform,to theEuropean Scrutiny Committee’s inquiry on post-Brexit scrutiny of EU law and policy. 
About the Centre for European ReformThe Centre for European Reform is independent think-tank devoted to making the European Union work better and strengthening
...
11 September 2019
CER podcast: Negotiations after no-deal Brexit

CER podcast: Negotiations after no-deal Brexit

John Springford deciphers what has been happening in Westminster over the past week, and talks to Beth Oppenheim about what this means for the chances of a no-deal Brexit.
Beth Oppenheim, John Springford
20 September 2019
Deal or no deal? Five questions on Boris Johnson's Brexit talks

Deal or no deal? Five questions on Boris Johnson's Brexit talks

The rough shape of a deal between the UK and the EU is emerging: Northern Ireland would follow EU rules in some areas but not others. Yet the two sides remain far apart.
Supreme Court rules prorogation unlawful
24 September 2019
Johnson proposes alternative to the backstop
2 October 2019
16 October 2019
The cost of Brexit to June 2019

The cost of Brexit to June 2019

The UK economy is 2.9 per cent smaller than it would be if the UK had voted to remain in the European Union, according to our latest estimate of the cost of Brexit to the end of the second quarter of 2019.
Johnson agrees new Withdrawal Agreement with EU
17 October 2019
Parliament votes for more time to scrutinise agreement
19 October 2019
23 October 2019
CER podcast: What next for Brexit?

CER podcast: What next for Brexit?

Charles Grant and Beth Oppenheim discuss what will happen next with the Brexit process, as well as what the future UK-EU relationship could look like.
Charles Grant, Beth Oppenheim
EU agrees extensions to 31 January 2020
28 October 2019
UK general election called for 12 December 2019
29 October 2019
Brexit day II
31 October 2019
4 November 2019
Warum das Brexit-Theater weiter geht (sorry)

Warum das Brexit-Theater weiter geht (sorry)

Die Neuwahl in Großbritannien wird Klarheit im Brexit-Drama bringen. Wirklich? Ein Wahlsieg für Boris Johnson ist keineswegs ausgemacht - und selbst wenn, das Ringen um den EU-Austritt wird weitergehen. Ein Selbstgespräch von Christian Odendahl.
5 November 2019
What a Boris Johnson EU-UK free trade agreement means for business

What a Boris Johnson EU-UK free trade agreement means for business

Johnson's EU-UK free trade agreement would increase friction and costs of trading with the EU. Many businesses would find adapting to a new FTA just as troublesome as if the UK had crashed out without a deal. 
12 November 2019
Sam Lowe: « l'accord Johnson sur le Brexit est proche d'un no deal »

Sam Lowe: « l'accord Johnson sur le Brexit est proche d'un no deal »

Dans une interview aux « Echos », Sam Lowe, du Centre for European Reform, explique pourquoi les entreprises britanniques ont un gros travail de préparation au Brexit devant elles et comment le Brexit va impacter la population.
28 November 2019
Johnson's future Brexit plan would be almost as disruptive as no deal

Johnson's future Brexit plan would be almost as disruptive as no deal

A "super Canada plus" agreement would still present businesses with a cliff edge.
How should the EU 'get Brexit done'?

How should the EU 'get Brexit done'?

The EU and the UK might have only 11 months to conclude negotiations on their future partnership. The EU would find it easier to achieve its objectives if its negotiating structures were similar to those for the Article 50 talks. 
How economically damaging will Brexit be?

How economically damaging will Brexit be?

Forecasts of the long-term hit from Boris Johnson’s Brexit range from 2 to 7 per cent. There are several reasons to fear that that the costs will be on the higher side.
16 December 2019
Conference report: Five challenges for Europe

Conference report: Five challenges for Europe

A new CER report summarises its 2019 Ditchley Park conference, which brought together 50 leading economists to discuss 'Five challenges for Europe'.
15 January 2020
EU sticking to tried and tested approach to Brexit talks

EU sticking to tried and tested approach to Brexit talks

Boris Johnson, fresh from a resounding election victory, is determined to avoid extending the post-Brexit transition period and agree a new partnership with the European Union by the end of the year.
16 January 2020
Flexibility does not come for free

Flexibility does not come for free

An EU-UK free trade agreement will result in new barriers to trade and border friction even if the UK chooses to unilaterally align itself with EU rules and regulations.
22 January 2020
Brexit will undermine Johnson's plans for poorer regions

Brexit will undermine Johnson's plans for poorer regions

In September, Boris Johnson told cabinet colleagues that he was “basically a Brexity Hezza.” 
27 January 2020
Priorities for 'Global Britain'

Priorities for 'Global Britain'

While the British government talks a good game on free trade and openness, it has failed to articulate what it actually wants and why. This will need to change.
UK foreign and security policy after Brexit

UK foreign and security policy after Brexit

Since the 19th century, Britain has seen alliances as temporary and interests as permanent. But Brexit will dissolve a partnership, while simultaneously harming the UK’s domestic and external security interests.
Who needs the CER?

Who needs the CER?

Regardless of Brexit, the CER will continue to devise policies to make the EU more effective and successful, and to improve the quality of Britain's relationship with it.
29 January 2020
CER podcast: Brexit bulletin special

CER podcast: Brexit bulletin special

In this special Brexit episode of the CER podcast, Charles Grant explains why the CER is still needed after Brexit; Sam Lowe discusses the future of UK-EU trade; and Ian Bond explores the fate of UK foreign policy.
Charles Grant, Sam Lowe, Ian Bond, Beth Oppenheim
30 January 2020
A Brexit trade deal can be done but new cliff-edges await, warns trade expert

A Brexit trade deal can be done but new cliff-edges await, warns trade expert

The UK may be just hours away from walking through the EU’s exit door but when it comes to trade, the journey is only just about to start, according to Sam Lowe, one of Westminster’s leading trade experts.
Brexit day III
31 January 2020
4 February 2020
Keynote address by Commissioner Phil Hogan at the Centre for European Reform

Keynote address by Commissioner Phil Hogan at the Centre for European Reform

Good evening ladies and gentlemen,
First of all let me thank CER for the invitation to speak here today, and let me commend you for the hugely important space you provide for reflection and debate.
We live in a time where balanced analysis has gone out of fashion in many constituencies. Polarised...
Phil Hogan
5 February 2020
EU trade chief: ‘Australia-style’ Brexit agreement means no deal

EU trade chief: ‘Australia-style’ Brexit agreement means no deal

UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson could still end up without a trade agreement if he pursues an "Australia-style" deal with the EU because such a deal does not exist, European Commissioner for Trade Phil Hogan said.
How the EU can survive Brexit

How the EU can survive Brexit

There are tensions between Emmanuel Macron and Angela Merkel – but unless France and Germany can work together the bloc will fragment.
11 February 2020
British services have played second fiddle in the Brexit debate

British services have played second fiddle in the Brexit debate

In 2018, services accounted for 46 per cent of UK exports, or £297 billion. The EU received 40 per cent of British services exports, and was the origin of 48 per cent of British services imports, the highest proportion of any UK trading partner.
19 February 2020
Business needs a transition period with the EU

Business needs a transition period with the EU

From the EU’s perspective, there is a political argument to be made that Brexit should be seen to hurt.
2 March 2020
The future EU-UK relationship and the (relative) case for optimism

The future EU-UK relationship and the (relative) case for optimism

Beyond the headline disagreements, both the EU and UK have similar expectations as to what a future free trade agreement can and cannot deliver. 
Londyn liczy na podziały w Unii Europejskiej. Jak dotąd ta strategia się nie sprawdziła

Londyn liczy na podziały w Unii Europejskiej. Jak dotąd ta strategia się nie sprawdziła

Twierdzenie, że Unia Europejska przystępuje do negocjacji z Wielką Brytanią osłabiona, należy traktować z przymrużeniem oka.
Boris Johnson is clearly in no rush to do a big US trade deal, as proven by his tough red lines

Boris Johnson is clearly in no rush to do a big US trade deal, as proven by his tough red lines

For those of us who assumed the UK would rush head first into trade talks with the United States, myself included, the last few months have come as somewhat of a surprise.
4 March 2020
CER podcast: Are the Brexit negotiations doomed to fail?

CER podcast: Are the Brexit negotiations doomed to fail?

The EU and the UK have now published their objectives outlining what they want a future EU-UK partnership to look like. There is much headline disagreement, but is there a landing zone in sight? Charles Grant and Sam Lowe discuss.
5 March 2020
The EU and UK can agree on the scope of a new trade deal, but the devil is in the detail

The EU and UK can agree on the scope of a new trade deal, but the devil is in the detail

The EU and the UK have set out what they want their future partnership to look like and the horse trading has begun.
End of transition period
31 December 2020